Welcome to what is probably the only website in the world exclusively dedicated to the absolute primacy of Jesus Christ according to the teachings of Bl. John Duns Scotus and the Franciscan school (“Franciscan” because, like the Immaculate Conception of Mary, they have championed the doctrine of the absolute primacy of Christ the King in all creation, but they are by no means the first or only ones to propose it; rather, as can be gathered from this website, this doctrine is found in the Scriptures, Fathers, Doctors, Saints and Mystics of the Church of all ages because it is simply the truth!).
Please note that all Christians are united in attributing a universal primacy to Christ; after all, He is God, the Eternal Word, made flesh! But is His universal primacy as the God-Man a relative primacy, in other words, occasioned by the sin of man? Or is His primacy absolute and unconditional and not dependent upon man’s need for Redemption? It is a question of God’s creative plan. Was Christ willed as the center of creation or was His coming due exclusively to man’s sin?
The Franciscan school has always proclaimed that God’s Masterpiece, namely Jesus the Son of God and Son of Mary, was at the center of God’s creative plan regardless of sin. And that is precisely what this website is all about – here we want to look at this sublime truth, like a sparkling diamond, from many angles, under different lights and with the aid of a variety of experts so as to see its dazzling beauty and appraise its infinite worth.
The text of the different pages is taken primarily from my book, A Primer on the Absolute Primacy of Christ (available for five bucks, if you’re interested), with occasional new comments or references in brackets, plus the addition of 2 appendices on Christ as the beginning and on the formation of Adam’s body, plus a number of blog entries on related topics with many links to resources; the videos of my series The Cornerstone are conveniently situated near the text that I’m explaining. In this way both the text and the videos are coherently linked according to subject matter which should make it easy to find and select the material related to the argument that interests you.
On this subject there are great minds, yes, even Doctors of the Church, on both sides, so we, like St. Thomas Aquinas and St. Bonaventure, need to respect both positions, even if we take a stand on one side or the other.
Thank you for visiting and let us pray for one another.
In Corde Matris,
Fr. Maximilian Mary Dean, Hermit
FYI – I’m a Hermit in the Diocese of Harrisburg, PA – a vocation that developed during my many years as a Franciscan friar and priest (3 years with the Franciscan Friars of the Renewal and 22 years with the Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate).
In the messianic Psalm 88 (89) Christ cries out to God the Father, “Thou art My Father: My God, and the support of My salvation” (v.27). Then God the Father says, “And I will make Him My firstborn, high above the kings of the earth” (v.28). While the second divine Person, the Word, proceeds eternally from the Father as His Son, He can never be said to be “made” nor “firstborn” in His divinity. The eternal Word is uncreated God with the eternal Father and the eternal Spirit. As the eternal Son He is called “only begotten” (only-born), not the first begotten (firstborn). If the Word is spoken of as the Firstborn it is solely in reference to the Word made flesh. The appellation “firstborn” when applied to Christ describes the Word as Incarnate. This is the teaching of the Councils and the Church Fathers.
St. Paul in his Epistle to the Colossians speaks of Christ as Firstborn on two levels: essere [being] and agire [action]. Essere always precedes agire. Or put conversely, action presupposes being. On the ontological level (essere) Christ is “the Firstborn of every creature” (1:15); on the tropological or moral level (agire) Christ is “the Firstborn from the dead” (1:18). In both cases it is His Sacred Humanity that is Firstborn.
Firstborn of every creature
When Christ is spoken of as Firstborn on the ontological level it is de facto a reference to His eternal predestination as the God-Man and thus a consistent affirmation of His absolute primacy. Here are some examples from Scripture:
Ps. 88:28 – “And I will make Him My firstborn, high above the kings of the earth.”
Col. 1:15 – “He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature.”
Rm. 8:29 – “For those whom He has foreknown He has also predestined to become conformed to the image of His Son, that He should be the firstborn among many brethren.”
Apoc. 3:14 – “Thus says the Amen, the faithful and true witness, who is the beginning of the creation of God.”
The next part of verse 15 reads that He is “the firstborn of every creature.” (Col. 1:15). If, as we have maintained, Jesus Christ is the firstborn of every creature (as opposed to the Uncreated Word), then the Franciscan thesis is immensely enriched.
In support of this position, we recall the Hebrew notion of the ‘firstborn’ (cf. Ex. 13:2,12-13). Of the flock, the firstborn male was to be redeemed or sacrificed; of the family, the firstborn son was to be redeemed. This Hebrew notion of the firstborn would not make sense if Paul were referring to the Divine, Uncreated Word as such. Moreover, the firstborn of a flock of sheep was itself a sheep; the firstborn male in the human family was a man like his brothers. In other words, the expression “firstborn of every creature” presumes that He Himself has a created nature just as “firstborn among many brethren” (Rom. 8:29) presumes that He has a human nature.
Finally, if the reference were to the Divine Person of the Word as Uncreated and Eternal quite apart from the Incarnation, then why the specific reference to the second Divine Person as opposed to the Father or the Holy Spirit? Why would there be a specific reference to the Uncreated Word instead of the Godhead? As we have noted, it is more consistent in this passage to see the subject of this Canticle as the Incarnate Word; it is inconsistent and even illogical to say that Paul suddenly changes the subject from Christ to the Uncreated Word.
This being the case, it is Jesus Christ who is “the firstborn of every creature.” In the purpose of God’s will, Christ has primacy over everything created. By this metaphor of the ‘firstborn’ the Apostle shows all creation as a family with Jesus Christ as the firstborn in the family of God’s creation. He shares their nature by assuming the created, human nature from the Blessed Virgin Mary—firstborn of every creature. Chronologically, as we know, our Divine Lord is not the first creature born into the world; but in the plan of God, He is. Once again, what is first or ‘firstborn’ in the intention is last in execution, as we have frequently noted. Christ’s primacy is, therefore, a primacy of excellence and priority in the intentions of God.
Here is my explanation of this back in 2007:
So on the level of essere (being) Christ is the Firstborn of all creation in His foreseen hypostatic union. But what does St. Paul mean in referring to Him as the firstborn of the dead?
Firstborn from the Dead
Christ IS King – by the very fact of who He IS. Being true God and true Man He is the King of kings and Lord of Lords (cf. 1 Tm 6:15; Apoc 1:5, 17:14, 19:11-16). This is not merited. This is not earned. This is a pure gift of love of God to the Sacred Humanity of Christ. The union of the created, human nature of Christ with the divine nature in the Person of the Word makes Him the absolute Lord and King of all creation. And since we have been predestined to be God’s children in Christ before the creation of the world (cf. Eph 1:3-10) it follows that His Humanity was predestined first (otherwise how could we be predestined in Him before creation?).
But St. Paul and St. John both speak of Christ also as the Firstborn of the dead:
Col 1:18 – “Again, He is the head of His body, the Church; He, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, that in all things He may have the first place.”
Apoc 1:4-5 – “John to the seven churches that are in Asia: grace be to you and peace from Him who is and who was and who is coming, and from the seven spirits who are before His throne, and from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the Ruler of the kings of the earth.”
Death enters the world of men through sin. Therefore Christ, in order to conquer sin, dies and rises from the dead. Because of Christ’s death and Resurrection those who die in Him will rise to new life in Him. His Resurrection is a ‘birth’ after passing through the ‘birth canal’ of death. He is the first to rise from the dead to eternal life, the “firstborn from the dead.” But this birth is merited. Christ merits His Resurrection and merits our Redemption through His life, passion and death. It is because of Christ’s life on earth, because of His actions (agire) that He becomes the Firstborn from the tomb.
From a Franciscan perspective, then, Christ was always absolutely, unconditionally predestined to be the Firstborn of all creation irregardless of man’s fall from grace and need for Redemption; however, because of Adam’s sin Christ also suffered death to atone for our sins and rose from the dead and became the Firstborn from the dead.
We thank and praise God for eternal life in Christ Jesus! If Adam had not sinned our life would still have been life in Christ, the Firstborn of many brethren; but because of sin He also becomes our Redemption, a propitiation for our sins, the Firstborn of the dead: “In this is love, not that we have loved God, but that He has first loved us, and sent His Son a propitiation for our sins” (1 Jn 4:10). Had we not sinned in Adam He would not have had to become “a propitiation for our sins” but would have come nonetheless sent by the Father’s love.
Essere (being) precedes agire (action); and conversely agire presupposes essere. Applied to Christ as Firstborn of all creation and Firstborn of the dead this means that He is King first in His being the Incarnate Word and then in His work as Redeemer. Put conversely, Christ’s becoming Redeemer King presupposes that He is the Incarnate King. Christ is Firstborn of all creation absolutely on the ontological level; Christ is Firstborn of the dead relatively because, after Adam’s fall, He chose to merit our Redemption by dying on the Cross and rising from the tomb.